(Solution)-Apply knowledge of the liberal arts and/or sciences appropriate to the discipline


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Reflection JournalThis week, through our work, we have had the opportunity to get to know each other and discuss the value of our respective undergraduate experiences. Additionally, we have begun to explore the following course outcomes:Apply knowledge of the liberal arts and/or sciences appropriate to the disciplineExpress a well-informed, personal viewpoint and show an understanding of our roles as professionals and citizensArticulate how learning extends beyond the classroomIn this reflection journal, in at least 150 words, reflect back on what you have learned so far through the course readings, assignment (if you’ve completed it yet), and our discussion. Consider the following questions to guide your reflection:What, if anything, did you find surprising, particularly challenging, interesting, or useful?From what you know about this course so far, what connections can you make to previous learning experiences, and how do you think this course will help you as you move forward in your college and professional life?How do the course outcomes for this week apply to your experience so far?What questions do you still need answered?Week 1 reading.pptx Practical Research 11th edition Paul D. Leedy& Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Chapter 1 The Nature and Tools of Research Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Research is: • A systematic process of Collecting Analyzing Interpreting information (data) • Goal: increase understanding of a phenomenon about which we are interested or concerned Research is not merely: • Gathering information • Rummaging around for hard-to-locate information • Transporting facts from one location to another Practical Research: Planning and Design, 11/e Leedy& Ormrod Research is a cyclical process Iterative Steps • Identify a question or problem • Articulate a goal • Divide the principal problem into more manageable subproblems • Identify hypotheses and assumptions • Develop a plan • Collect, organize, and analyze data • Interpret the data as they relate to the problem Hypothesis • A hypothesis is: A logical supposition A reasonable guess An educated conjecture • Provides a tentative explanation for a phenomenon under investigation • May direct thinking to possible sources of information necessary to resolve the research problem and its subproblems Assumption • An assumption is: Condition that is taken for granted • Two general assumptions that underlie most research projects: The phenomenon under investigation is somewhat lawful and predictable. Cause-and-effect relationships can account for certain patterns observed in the phenomenon. Philosophical Orientations Toward Research • Positivism with appropriate measurement tools, scientists can objectively uncover absolute, undeniable truths about cause-and-effect relationships within the physical world and human experience. • Postpositivism true objectivity in seeking absolute truths can be an elusive goal. Philosophical Orientations Toward Research • Constructivism no absolute truth — the “realities” researchers identify are simply perceptions and interpretations. • Pragmatism/realism absolute truths may actually exist—even if they are exceedingly difficult to discover. human beings’ self-constructed beliefs about phenomena are legitimate objects of study in their own right. Tools of Research • Specific mechanisms or strategies used to collect, manipulate, or interpret data The library and its resources Computer technology Measurement Statistics Language The human mind • Methodology dictates the tools the researcher selects Library and Its Resources • Access to books, microforms, CDs, DVDs, online databases • Fast and efficient means of locating and accessing information • Access to library holdings around the world Computer Technology is Used for: • Generating and organizing ideas • Scheduling, structuring, and coordinating projects • Finding literature • Networking with others • Storing and analyzing data • Writing, editing, formatting • Producing graphics • Presenting results Measurement • Usually used in quantitative research • More difficult for qualitative research • Common instruments Scales Rulers Stopwatches • Specialized instruments Telescope MRI Main Functions of Statistics • Describe the data Descriptive statistics summarize the general nature of the data obtained • Draw inferences from the data Inferential statistics help the researcher make decisions about the data Language as a Tool • Allows us to communicate and think more effectively reduces complexity of the world allows abstraction of the environment enhances the power of thought facilitates generalizations and drawing inferences Communicating Effectively Through Writing • Be specific and precise: Say exactly what you mean • Keep your primary objective in mind at all times • Provide an overview of what you will be discussing • Organize ideas into categories by using headings and subheadings • Use concrete examples to make abstract ideas more understandable Communicating Effectively Through Writing Use figures and tables Regularly summarize what you’ve said Anticipate having to write multiple drafts Check your final draft Grammar Punctuation Spelling The Human Mind • The most important tool in the researcher’s toolbox • Used for critical thinking • Evaluates Accuracy credibility worth of information lines of reasoning The Human Mind • Evaluation may take a variety of forms: verbal reasoning argument analysis probabilistic reasoning decision making hypothesis testing The Human Mind • Deductive logic Begins with one or more premises, statements or assumptions that the researcher initially takes to be true Valuable for generating research hypotheses and testing theories Practical Research: Planning and Design, 11/e Leedy& Ormrod Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Human Mind • Inductive reasoning Begins with an observation (sample) Observation then used to draw conclusions about entire classes of objects or events (population) The Human Mind • Scientific method Process of collecting & analyzing data systematically Involves thinking actively and intentionally Yields hypotheses The Human Mind • Theory Building An organized body of concepts and principles Intended to explain a particular phenomenon The Human Mind • Collaboration with other minds Increases variety of • Perspectives • Backgrounds • Areas of expertise May reduce bias Exploring Research in Your Field • Juried (or refereed) research report Judged by experts in the field and deemed to be of sufficient quality and importance to warrant publication. • Nonjuried (or nonrefereed) report Appears in a journal or on the Internet without having been reviewed or selected by experts. Some nonjuried reports are excellent, but others may not be.


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